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了解最近很火的OKR  

2014-02-17 10:22:50|  分类: 管理小技巧 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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    OKR的全称是“目标和主要成果”(Objectives and Key Results),这套系统由英特尔公司制定,在谷歌成立不到一年的时间,被投资者约翰·都尔(John-Doerr)引入谷歌,并一直沿用至今。

谷歌对OKR考核按照季度和年度进行,季度OKR考核不会变化,但是年度考核目标会随着业务的进行作出调整。OKR的设定涵盖多个层面,包括公司层面、团队层面、高管层面和普通员工层面,其目的是确保公司平稳运行。

通常,员工每个季度接受4个到6个OKR考核。如果考核数量超过该数目,表明这位员工有可能被解雇。每个季度末期将对OKR考核进行打分,分值从0到1。一般的分值为0.6至0.7,如果获得1分,可能是目标制定得太简单;如果低于0.4,员工可能就要反省自己哪里做错了

包括CEO拉里·佩奇(Larry Page)在内,所有员工的OKR评分都公开,可以在员工资料库查看自己或同事的OKR目标和得分。需要指出的是,该得分并不作为谷歌晋升员工的依据。

有业内人士称,OKR系统似乎会给谷歌员工们带来压力,但同时也有助于员工了解其他人在忙些什么。

This Is The Internal Grading System Google Uses For Its Employees — And You Should Use It Too

OKR deck




When Google was less than a year old, John Doerr, one of its investors, made a presentation pitching the company on using a organizational system called Objectives and Key Results, or OKRs.

The OKR system came from Intel. Google took to OKRs pretty much immediately and has been using it ever since.OKRs are a simple way to create structure for companies, teams, and individuals. Even if your company doesn't use OKRs, they can be helpful in your personal life, or for yourself at work.

Google Ventures partner Rick Klau gave a one-hour, 20-minute presentation on how OKRs work last year. It's a pretty fascinating look at how Google operates. It's also useful for just about any company, or any person, who wants to create a simple, easy-to-follow system for getting stuff done.

Here's how they work.

okr goals

Screenshot

First, you set up an Objective. Then you set up a number of "Key Results" that are quantifiable that will help you hit your objective.

Your objectives should be definitive and measurable. Don't say, for instance, I want to make my website prettier. Say you want to make your website 30% faster. Or you want to increase engagement by 15%.

When Klau worked on Blogger at Google, he set up a few objectives for each quarter.

One objective one quarter was to improve Blogger's reputation. Though the site was quite large, it was losing cachet as other blogging platforms like Tumblr started gaining in popularity.

sample okr

Screenshot

To improve Blogger's reputation, Klau came up with four easily measured results, which you can see in the slide on the right.

Klau says Google does OKRs on an annual basis, and a quarterly basis. The annual OKR is a big, umbrella idea for the year, and it's not set in stone, it can evolve as the year evolves. The quarterly OKRs do not change.

He also says that Google has OKRs at a company level, at a team level, at a managerial level, and at a personal level. They all work together to keep the company on track.

Klau says that employees should have 4-6 OKRs per quarter. If you have more than that, you're going to be fried.

At the end of the quarter, you grade your key results. Google has a 0-1 scale. The goal is not to get a 1 on each key result, you're actually aiming for a 0.6-0.7. If you get a 1, then you've created too easy a key result. (Or as he puts it, "If you get 1s, you’re not crushing it, you’re sandbagging.")If you get below a 0.4, then you need to take a serious look at what you're doing wrong.

OKR grades

Screenshot

So, returning to Klau's example, we can see how well he did at his goals. Speaking at industry events was easy, and he did it, so he gets a 1. He struggled with the DMCA result, but that makes sense since it was tough.

Klau also says that grading should only take a few minutes. Don't spend time worrying about your grades, spend your time working on the goals.

OKR

Screenshot

At Google, all OKRs are public from Larry Page on down. You can look up what your co-workers' OKRs are in the employee directory. It's right there as a piece of their internal profiles. Not only do you see their OKRs, but you also see their scores through the years on their OKRs.

This might seem intimidating, but it helps Googlers understand what everyone's working on.

OKR

Screenshot

Klau explained that he was once in charge of the home page for YouTube. Some co-workers may have wanted to promote one of their products by getting a video on YouTube.com. They could look up his OKRs, see what he was working on for the quarter and then either shape their pitch to get on the home page, or plant a seed in his head for when he starts drawing up new OKRs for the next quarter.

OKRs are not used by management to determine promotions. But they can be used by employees to keep an eye on what they've accomplished. Klau said that if he was up for a promotion, he had a quick, easily accessible system to figure out what he's done for the company through OKRs.

It may sound fairly simple, and straightforward, but that's part of the appeal. You get a short list of items to work against to help you focus on doing your job.


讨论OKR之前,有必要先说一个前提:Google的impact文化。衡量的是员工为Google做出了多大的impact,而不是员工是不是很努力地干了很多活,也不是员工是不是听老板的话完成了老板布置的任务。

所以OKR也是为了让员工有可能做出更大的impact服务的,因而有以下特点:

1. 模糊的目标,用于统一努力的方向,而非计划
所有做过IT项目的人都知道,再周全的计划总是赶不上变化。所以OKR不是计划,只是一个模糊的目标,具体如何实现还需要探索。但有了目标至少有了努力的方向,这样,个人的目标,团队的目标和公司的目标才有可能能够一致,从而为产生更大的impact提供可能。

2. 量化
OKR必须是个measurable goal

3. 由员工或者Tech Lead提出,而非经理
OKR需要统一的是个人的目标和团队的目标。Tech Lead负责的是团队的目标,而员工在意的是个人的职业生涯和个人为Google做出的impact,两个目标通过共同制定OKR来统一。

4. (基本)不作为考核标准
既然OKR是用来统一目标而非衡量成果的,一般不作为考核标准,虽然Perf的过程中也会参考,但1.0和0.7之间本身并没有太大差别。


更多有趣资料可看:http://www.gv.com/lib/how-google-sets-goals-objectives-and-key-results-okrs


Benefits of OKRs?

  • It disciplines thinking (the major goals will surface)
  • Communicates accurately (lets everyone know what is important)
  • Establishes indicators for measuring progress
    (shows how far along we are)
  • Focuses effort (keeps organization in step with each other)

How to implement OKRs?

Firstly, set your Objectives; these should be significant, should communicate action and should be supported by the organization as a whole.

Secondly, for each Objective, write down your Key Results, which is how you’re going to accomplish the goals. These  few key points should be aggressive yet realistic, measurable, and time related.

Example:

OBJECTIVE:

Increase sales by 25% in the next quarter

KEY RESULTS:

  • Hire 2 great new sales people
  • Introduce new more effective sales collateral
  • Increase conversion rate on visits to website by 10%

Some guidelines:

  • Maximum of 5 objectives per company, department, team and person.
  • Maximum of 4 Key Results per Objective
  • OKRs must be mutually agreed upon by managers and employees
  • OKRs should be a “stretch” – managers should expect a score of 60-70% completion. (100% indicates the OKRs were too easy in the first place).
  • Review regularly, and carry forward only those Key Results which are still relevant.
  • Objectives should be supporting the company as a whole.
  • Key Results should be outcome based not task based.
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