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Executive Summary of the 14 Toyota Way Principles  

2011-02-24 15:53:55|  分类: 管理小技巧 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Section I: Long-Term Philosophy

Principle 1. Base your management decisions on a long-term philosophy, even at the expense of short-term financial
goals.

·Have a philosophical sense of purpose that supersedes any short-term decision making. Work, grow, and align the whole organization toward a common purpose that is bigger than making money. Understand your place in the history of the company and work to bring the company to the next level. Your philosophical  mission is the foundation for all the other principles.
·Generate value for the customer, society, and the economy it is your starting point. Evaluate every function in  the company in terms of its ability to achieve this.
·Be responsible. Strive to decide your own fate. Act with self-reliance and trust in your own abilities. Accept responsibility for your conduct and maintain and improve the skills that enable you to produce added value.
Section II: The Right Process Will Produce the Right Results
Principle 2. Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface.

·Redesign work processes to achieve high value-added, continuous flow. Strive to cut back to zero the amount of time that any work project is sitting idle or waiting for someone to work on it.
·Create flow to move material and information fast as well as to link processes and people together so that problems surface right away.
·Make flow evident throughout your organizational culture. It is the key to a true continuous improvement process and to developing people.
Principle 3. Use pull systems to avoid overproduction.
·Provide your downline customers in the production process with what they want, when they want it, and in the amount they want. Material replenishment initiated by consumption is the basic principle of just-in-time.
·Minimize your work in process and warehousing of inventory by stocking small amounts of each product and frequently restocking based on what the customer actually takes away.
·Be responsive to the day-by-day shifts in customer demand rather than relying on computer schedules and systems to track wasteful inventory.

Principle 4. Level out the workload (heijunka). (Work like the tortoise, not the hare.)
·Eliminating waste is just one-third of the equation for making lean successful. Eliminating overburden to people and equipment and eliminating unevenness in the production schedule are just as important yet generally not understood at companies attempting to implement lean principles.
·Work to level out the workload of all manufacturing and service processes as an alternative to the stop/start approach of working on projects in batches that is typical at most companies.
Principle 5. Build a culture of stopping to fix problems, to get quality right the first time.
·Quality for the customer drives your value proposition.
·Use all the modern quality assurance methods available.
·Build into your equipment the capability of detecting problems and stopping itself. Develop a visual system to alert team or project leaders that a machine or process needs assistance. Jidoka (machines with human intelligence) is the foundation for building in quality.
·Build into your organization support systems to quickly solve problems and put in place countermeasures.
·Build into your culture the philosophy of stopping or slowing down to get quality right the first time to enhance productivity in the long run.
Principle 6. Standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment.
·Use stable, repeatable methods everywhere to maintain the predictability, regular timing, and regular output of your processes. It is the foundation for flow and pull.
·Capture the accumulated learning about a process up to a point in time by standardizing today s best practices. Allow creative and individual expression to improve upon the standard; then incorporate it into the new standard so that when a person moves on you can hand off the learning to the next person.
Principle 7. Use visual control so no problems are hidden.

·Use simple visual indicators to help people determine immediately whether they are in a standard condition or deviating from it.
·Avoid using a computer screen when it moves the worker s focus away from the workplace.
·Design simple visual systems at the place where the work is done, to support flow and pull.
·Reduce your reports to one piece of paper whenever possible, even for your most important financial decisions.
Principle 8. Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes.
·Use technology to support people, not to replace people. Often it is best to work out a process manually before adding technology to support the process.
·New technology is often unreliable and difficult to standardize and therefore endangers flow. A proven process that works generally takes precedence over new and untested technology.
·Conduct actual tests before adopting new technology in business processes, manufacturing systems, or products.
·Reject or modify technologies that conflict with your culture or that might disrupt stability, reliability, and predictability.
·Nevertheless, encourage your people to consider new technologies when looking into new approaches to work. Quickly implement a thoroughly considered technology if it has been proven in trials and it can improve flow in your processes.
Section III: Add Value to the Organization by Developing Your People and Partners
Principle 9. Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work, live the philosophy, and teach it to others.

·Grow leaders from within, rather than buying them from outside the organization.
·Do not view the leader s job as simply accomplishing tasks and having good people skills. Leaders must be role models of the company s philosophy and way of doing business.
·A good leader must understand the daily work in great detail so he or she can be the best teacher of your company s philosophy.
Principle 10. Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company s philosophy.
·Create a strong, stable culture in which company values and beliefs are widely shared and lived out over a period of many years.
·Train exceptional individuals and teams to work within the corporate philosophy to achieve exceptional results. Work very hard to reinforce the culture continually.
·Use cross-functional teams to improve quality and productivity and enhance flow by solving difficult technical problems. Empowerment occurs when people use the company s tools to improve the company.
·Make an ongoing effort to teach individuals how to work together as teams toward common goals.Teamwork is something that has to be learned.
Principle 11. Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve.
·Have respect for your partners and suppliers and treat them as an extension of your business.
·Challenge your outside business partners to grow and develop. It shows that you value them. Set challenging targets and assist your partners in achieving them.
Section IV: Continuously Solving Root Problems Drives Organizational Learning
Principle 12. Go and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (genchi genbutsu).

·Solve problems and improve processes by going to the source and personally observing and verifying data rather than theorizing on the basis of what other people or the computer screen tell you.
·Think and speak based on personally verified data.
·Even high-level managers and executives should go and see things for themselves, so they will have more than a superficial understanding of the situation.
Principle 13. Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly considering all options; implement decisions rapidly (nemawashi).
·Do not pick a single direction and go down that one path until you have thoroughly considered alternatives.When you have picked, move quickly but cautiously down the path.
·Nemawashi is the process of discussing problems and potential solutions with all of those affected, to collect their ideas and get agreement on a path forward. This consensus process, though time-consuming, helps broaden the search for solutions, and once a decision is made, the stage is set for rapid implementation.
Principle 14. Become a learning organization through relentless reflection (hansei) and continuous improvement (kaizen).
·Once you have established a stable process, use continuous improvement tools to determine the root cause of inefficiencies and apply effective countermeasures.
·Design processes that require almost no inventory. This will make wasted time and resources visible for all to see. Once waste is exposed, have employees use a continuous improvement process (kaizen) to eliminate it.
·Protect the organizational knowledge base by developing stable personnel, slow promotion, and very careful succession systems.
·Use hansei (reflection) at key milestones and after you finish a project to openly identify all the shortcomings of the project. Develop countermeasures to avoid the same mistakes again.
·Learn by standardizing the best practices, rather than reinventing the wheel with each new project and each new manager.

        建立品质文化   丰田最重视的是确实执行与采取行动,我们总是要求员工:何不采取行动,尝试不同的方法呢?当你诚实面对失败时,才有矫正的机会。于是,藉由不断改善,或应该说是靠不断尝试的行动以获得改善,就能提升实务与知识。  ──丰田汽车总裁   张富士夫

      加速流程   从一开始,丰田就认为,谁都能雇用机械师、工程师,谁都能雇用这个、买下那个,但是,在建造一部车之前,丰田应该先使建造一个模型、制造一具引擎等的新革命性流程至臻完善,一切必须回溯到源头,就是这种理念使丰田与众不同。─丰田公司创办人   丰田喜一郎

       杜绝浪费 我们所做的,其实就是注意从接到顾客订单到向顾客收帐这段期间的作业时间,藉由移除不能创造价值的浪费,以缩短作业时间。──丰田生产制度发明者之一   大野耐一

       现场改善 在制造业,资料当然重要,但是,我认为最重要的是事实。不带任何成见地到现场实地观察生产状况,对每件事、每个问题重复问「五个为什么」。 ──大野耐一

 

第一类原则   长期理念
原则1:管理决策必须以长期理念为基础,即使必须因此牺牲短期财务目标也在所不惜

 

第二类原则   正确的流程方能产生正确结果
原则2:建立无间断的作业流程以使问题浮现
原则3:使用「后拉式制度」以避免生产过剩
原则4:使工作负荷平均(平准化)
原则5:建立立即暂停以解决问题、一开始就重视品管的文化
原则6:职务工作的标准化是持续改善与授权员工的基础
原则7:使用视觉控管,使问题无从隐藏
原则8:使用可靠的、已经经过充分测试的技术以支持人员及流程

第三类原则   发展员工与事业伙伴,以为组织创造价值
原则9:栽培彻底了解并拥抱公司理念的员工成为领导者,并使他们能教导其它员工
原则10:栽培与发展信奉公司理念的杰出人才与团队
原则11:重视公司的事业伙伴与供货商网络,挑战它们,并帮助它们改善

第四类原则   持续解决根本问题是组织型学习的驱动力
原则12:亲临现场查看以彻底了解情况(现地现物)
原则13:决策不急躁,以共识为基础,彻底考虑所有可能选择,快速执行决策
原则14:透过不断地省思与持续改善,以变成一个学习型组织

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